samedi 17 août 2013


By Clark G. KHADIGE, dba, desg
(JCB 1934 - 2012)

Note to the reader:
The original text was written in French. The translation was done by the author, and corrections were done by Miss Mia NEHME, MSc.

Every organization needs to communicate, at least to make itself known enough on markets. In its objectives and commercial responsibilities, the highlighting of its brands and its products cannot do without communication. The latter, however, must be sufficiently intelligent, if not subtle, in order to be able to meet the expectations of individuals in the markets where, today, businesses are waging a war without scruples. For this, it is going to organize specific communication strategies.
The goal of this article is to highlight the importance of an intelligent strategy of communication, that is to say, that the Intelligence of Man is coextensive with the organization's, in a frantic race towards optimizing market control.
Strategy - Communication - Intelligence - Expectations

Toute entreprise se doit de communiquer, ne fut-ce que pour se faire connaître. Dans ses objectifs et responsabilités commerciales, la mise en relief, et en évidence, de ses marques et de ses produits ne peut se passer de communication. Celle-ci, cependant, se doit d'être suffisamment intelligente, sinon subtile, afin de pouvoir répondre aux attentes des individus dans les marchés où, aujourd'hui, les entreprises se font une guerre sans scrupules. Pour cela, elle va s'organiser en stratégies pointues.
L'objectif de cet article est de mettre en évidence l'importance de la stratégie de communication intelligente, c'est-à-dire celle où l'Intelligence de l'homme se confond avec celle de l'entreprise dans une course effrénée vers une optimisation de la maîtrise des marchés.
Stratégie – Communication – Intelligence - Attentes

The strategy of Commercial Communication uses different activities, which are: Advertising, Public Relations, Product Promotion, Sales Promotion, Direct Marketing, Personal Selling, and Sponsorship. In the light of the Relationship Intelligence, we will see here how the activities can be drawn to a direction beneficial to businesses that communicate.


Advertising, by definition and by nature, has a double definition:

Ø It is information on products and brands, (product-communication and brand-communication), on organizations, (institutional communication), that consumers need to make their choice and buy. For this, it will focus on an oriented truth which is to stress on the positive side of things. 

Ø It is a sales support that companies use in order to develop their sales and their territorial expansion. 

 It therefore creates an informational bridge between a product, a brand or a business and a consumer who attempts to have an impact in groups and individually. This is the first effective relationship, producing effects that it establishes with a market. 

To act and create the necessary impact to the stimulation in the processes of choosing, decision-making and purchasing, Intelligence in Communication, consisting mainly in the Communicative Intelligence and the Communicating Intelligence, will resort to the compelling and extolling messages "something better, more practical, more suitable and easier, but also less complex and less complicated". It will resort to:

Ø The Relational Intelligence  : knowing how to create links between two entities: that of the organization, its brands and its products with that of the consumer and the market,
Ø The Impactual Intelligence  : to create an interest and a desire for possession, as hard as possible,
Ø The Emotional Intelligence : to show emotional relations with the public, "To be attentive", or the famous "we care ", 
Ø The Emotive Intelligence : to raise public awareness on the psychological benefits brought by products and brands, (social Image sought),
Ø The Empathic Intelligence: "thinking about what is the best for consumers! »
Ø The Opportunistic Intelligence: since it has "disturbed" the habits, each one's comfort, therefore pushing to make enough research efforts, reflection and choices. But this type of intelligence also provides  the possibility to create or take advantage of opportunities which exist and could provide some unique benefits,
Ø The Stimulating Intelligence : one should well support sales, but also create new motivations for change, abandoning habits that have become too rooted,
Ø The Creative Intelligence  : to create advertising concepts, while proclaiming the characteristics of a new lifestyle (product) or of a new quality of life (brands),
Ø The Creating Intelligence : to insert innovation, change and ongoing development, but also to lead an individual towards an art of living,
Ø The Imaginative Intelligence : to associate a reality to a dream, through the contribution of innovation, as a possible response to the search of a better living,
Ø The Evocative Intelligence: why not change for the better and strive toward the best?
Ø The Evocating Intelligence: if a dream exists, why not achieving it?
Ø The Linguistic Intelligence : knowing how to say what people want to hear, which makes them happy, 
Ø The Space Intelligence : helping a consumer to make a meaningful representation of himself in a certain social context, (identification to a new, better and higher social class), 
Ø The Argumenting Intelligence: being able to find enough key points to convince persuade and suggest.
Ø Etc.

The point, here, is not to use and apply a Simulating Intelligence, which objective is to make people believe, but a Stimulating Intelligence which aims to make people know, want and act knowingly.

Let's note that Advertising, today, deals less and less with the qualities and the properties of a product, but especially highlights a social event in which the product, and possibly the brand, play a primary role. The purpose is to impress, as any impression is retained in the memory, much more than simple information, and memorization navigates between aspirations and actual experiences lived by the individual. 

As a consequence, a succeeding advertising message is one which is going to create the will to act (to purchase and consume or use) in the individual's mind, or to participate if this message is empathic enough. However, let us remember the psychological side of the product, the brand or the organization:

Ø The product, as we have suggested in one of our articles, is before all a social link, since we have said that, in the case of consumer products, on an average 80 per cent of the time, the individual does not eat alone, but in the company of other individuals without necessarily sharing the same meal, and in a professional activity the individual works on average 20 per cent of the time in cooperation and in collaboration with other individuals sharing as well, and sometimes, the same equipment. 

Ø The brand, in the same articles, has been highlighted as a reference to a quality of life, since the constituent products its ranges offer, or suggest, the concept of quality reflected in sustainability, durability and constant functionality. Let's add to this point, that in its psychological contribution, any brand brings as well the strengthening the social image, which is often sought by emotive consumers for whom the social image is primary. 

Ø The organization, too oftenly forgotten in products and brands ads, is the reference in regard to reflection on the styles and qualities of life research, because this is what designs and suggests, as a consequence of its perfect understanding of the expectations of publics and markets. Therefore and for the second time, the question of the loyalty of an individual will be raised: should loyalty be to the product, to the brand or to the organization? To consolidate this question, we must ask the following: if a product, or a brand, disappears from a market, who would the relative loyalty go to?  
Inevitably, it will go to another product or to another brand that could bring the same intensity of satisfaction, if not more. The risk of losing a customer is therefore large. The importance of the organization's signature at the bottom of any products or brands advertising message is therefore a must should the organization wish to retain its consumers and clients.


Public Relations can be identified as "an activity set up by the organization to create, establish, maintain, or improve the confidence, the understanding and the sympathy of links with internal and external audiences that affect its development". [1]

The key word is links, therefore a bridge between the organization and human environments. They need to understand to accept, as well as to deny or refute. That is why Public Relations will play on three main characteristics of belief[2] : 

Ø A high level of credibility: give something true, pure and full by complete and transparent information, unlike product-advertising which will present an oriented truth toward the positive points of the product or the brand, and institutional advertising which will only highlight the qualities and relational creativity of the organization. The Communicating Intelligence will have the responsibility to get the message through creating texts developed well enough to create the impact of printing, understanding and acceptance.[3]

Ø An ability to overcome resistance: to reach a large number of persons who generally feel suspicious about what organizations publish. It is the Linguistic Intelligence that will inspire the effective terms necessary to modify public opinion.

Ø A great strength of expression: Public Relations offer considerable potential for an attractive presentation of a product or a business. In this case the Linguistic Intelligence will have more the face of an Expressive Intelligence which will demonstrate the real reality of the organization.


It is good to differentiate between the product-promotion and the sales-promotion, as each one covers different real objectives. Therefore:

Ø Product-Promotion's primary role is to create a direct link between the product and the consumer. This link lies in the presentation, the demonstration and the explanation of the product and, in the second place, to present the range of products offered by the brand. To apply, in a certain way, the Saint Thomas[4] principle: see, touch, test, feel, try, taste, and hear ... to believe.

Ø The expected impact is an act of voluntary purchase, without exaggerated stimulation and without creating automatic reflexes, emerging from the understanding of what a product can bring to the consumer. Interpersonal Intelligence[5] will be a Realistic Intelligence which will join in a Stimulating Intelligence to achieve the goal of commitment by the consumer.


By contrast, the promotion of sales  aims at enhancing the level of sales through the contribution of values and benefits added to the product and to the brand: price reduction, increase of free volume, samples attached, various offers, etc. Interpersonal Intelligence will be only a Stimulating Intelligence which will create the benefits to offer, sufficiently interesting for the consumer to buy. 

Heterogeneous activity, par excellence, sales promotion presents three characteristics[6] :

Ø The power of communication, and therefore of the requesting Communicating Intelligence, in order to attract attention and to provide the information likely to cause the purchase, by an offer of various benefits,

Ø A power of stimulation, requiring, thus mobilizing, the Stimulating Intelligence, through the appearance of an additional benefit intended to motivate the buyer, 

Ø A short-term impact, therefore the Impactual Intelligence, with enough stimulating power to cause a rapid response.

We should note, however, the existence of a certain danger: accustoming the consumer to the reward of purchase. A study conducted on the Lebanese market in 1994, has shown that the Lebanese consumer, (and perhaps all the consumers in the world), buy the offered advantage[7] , more than the product, especially if the need for this last is not imperative. 

The responsibility to communicate the time interval during which the promotion will take place, is attributed to the Realistic Intelligence, and to the Communicative Intelligence. So, there is here, a presence, an action, and an accountability of the Relational Intelligence.


Personal selling, or person to person sale, or face-to-face sale, or even door to door sale, (the American one-to-one selling concept), aims mainly at creating a direct link between the organization and the consumer through a salesman. 

There is no need here to mention again the living ambassador or representative aspect of the salesman, but it is important to note that the relationship which will be established with the consumer is vital in the perception that the latter will have on the organization. The action of the Transactional Intelligence is here highlighted since it will emphasize all the training efforts that the organization has invested in the training of its various representatives.
Face-to-face sale is the oldest form of transactions in the world since it gathers the three elements necessary to make a sale: a seller, a buyer and a product. In order for the transaction to take place, a negotiation is going to take place and creates an exchange of arguments of conviction and of objections.

The Negotiating Intelligence, as much as the Cunning Intelligence and the Pernicious Intelligence,  will be the one which will determine the organization-client relationship, through an interposed salesman, through the exchange of arguments that will lead to a beneficial result to both parties in presence, and also to obtain windfall benefits which will be granted, afterwards, to consumers/customers.

The Relational Intelligence »…will create a communication tool particularly effective to construct a preference, a conviction and a purchase»: the Negotiating Intelligence, which main quality is the dimension of interpersonal communication i.e. the[8] direct and reciprocal contact. 

The expected result is, of course, to close the sale to everyone's satisfaction, the American "win-win" concept. 


"Direct Marketing is an interactive marketing, which uses one or more media in order to obtain a response and/or a transaction".[9]

It is in the form of an Interactive Intelligence that the Relational Intelligence builds a long-term relationship with the different players of the market. There will be also the development of the Transactional Intelligence through the connection made between the employee in charge of the direct marketing and the consumer itself. 

The main advantage of this sales technique is saving time, since by the sending of information by brochure or by catalogue, by SMS as much as by e-mail and by phone, the decision-making is often immediate. On the other hand, it allows being able to compare offers, products and prices. Decision making will be at the instigation of the Voluntary Intelligence and of the Decisional Intelligence, after that the Selecting Intelligence will allow isolating what is the most advantageous, primarily with respect to the quality-price, quality-volume, volume-price and quality-volume-price ratios.

But long-term Realistic Intelligence should inspire the organization to submit a Behavioural Intelligence in order to avoid a destructive boomerang effect of all invested efforts. This intelligence is going to use the benefits of the Ethical Intelligence, that is to say, the honest relationship. The latter will measure, and will avoid as much as possible[10] :

Ø The effect of irritation : a lot of consumers have complained about the insistence of certain practices of direct marketing that are more aggressive than others, 

Ø Injustice: a lot of consumers feel aggrieved in regard to the offerings promised when others exhibit them, without considering that the late consumer, in the period of promotion, is answered that unfortunately there is nothing more to gain. Accordingly the credibility of the company takes a strong blow. 

Ø Invasion of private and professional life: a lot of consumers feel disturbed by the intrusion of direct marketing in their private and professional lives,


Organizations do recognize that the life of a market is not only concentrated on commercial transactions. There is a different life that individuals lead with all its "ups and downs". 

To live in a society, is to live with the others, by establishing multiple relationships, but also through various cultural, sports, ideological events, etc. These events usually need financial assistance to be made. What could be better than to require the participation of an organization? This is often an opportunity for organizations to become better known. They therefore benefit from the event to market themselves and to promote their brands and their products. [11][12]

The form of Intelligence implementation here has a dual identity:

Ø The Concerned Intelligence which is going to get it to integrate the event without having been invited
Ø The Opportunistic Intelligence which will make it participate voluntarily and that will get the organization to "take advantage as much as possible of the occasion,


It is a form of social events sponsoring, unlike sponsorship itself which sponsors any type of events, with the difference that the organization does not derive any direct benefit from it, except to increase the awareness of its corporate image oriented towards the promotion of a human face of the organization. The appearance of its name is usually pretty quiet in this type of event.

However the relationship is well marked and sustained by the organizers. The patrons resort to an Altruistic Intelligence which will allow them to present their business as close to the individuals in need, and to display a sort of humanism which will negate this image of raptor that the outside public often has. This is mainly the case of banks which perception is, in this regard and unfortunately, most often negative.



Note: The following part is based on the article written by Philippe MOUGEL and Aurelian TRIOUX (2011) - La communication engageante – (www.portaildel'

The psychology of commitment is based on a non-Cartesian vision of human behaviour. It would be through multiple commitments, which would enable it to conduct various experiments, without having chosen them a priori, that the human individual approaches very often in his environment. 
According to Charles KIESLER (1971), "the commitment is the link that unites an individual to its acts". Only actions commit us. We are not committed by our ideas, or by our feelings, but by our effective behaviour. This is a continuous variable, because people are all the time, more or less committed, in different behaviours. [13]

The theory of commitment concerns the conditions and effects of commitment. What are its conditions? Why would an individual feel himself committed by his action?

After experimentation, it emerges that the necessary factors are the following:

Ø The subject is committing himself by his action,
Ø He must feel that he chooses, without submission to an authority, to do what he planned to do,
Ø The action must have consequences, it must be public and non-anonymous,
Ø He communicates with his entourage.

The commitment in an action then affects the organization or the structure of relationships with others, should they be teammates in the same organization or consumers. The cognitive structure of committed participants thus become highly organized and, therefore, resistant to any persuasive attack. 

Whereas "the theory of reasoned action" sought to change people's behaviour by changing people themselves, that is to say by modifying their beliefs, and subsequently, their intentions, through the attitude, the subjective standard, the perception of control, the approach of KIESLER[14] is directed directly to actions.

The psychology of commitment works as follows: actions towards other actions and actions towards ideas. "The adjacent bets" are to be considered as actions, they are expressed by promises, moral or legal contracts...

It joined thus the "pragmatic" of the speech, developed in the book of John AUSTIN (1970)[15] : "When to say is to do", in which the author points out that next to the set forth observation, (that provide facts and are evaluable on criteria of plausibility), we can find performing actions that are doing an action and can be evaluated in terms of success or failures. 

While there was a tendency, until then, to neglect and to ignore the latter, AUSTIN wonders if they are not the expression of a major function of the speech, to the point that all of the statements to be considered in a certain way, as performing social acts. He distinguished as well " the locutionary act " to say something, by the production of sounds, vocabulary and grammar, meaning and reference, "the illocutionary act" that one performs in saying something, the action accompanied by a floor and "the perlocutionary act" which aroused the effects on the feelings, the thoughts, the acts of the audience or the one who is talking.

The pragmatic highlights in the speech:

Ø The act concept: we acknowledge that language not only aims at, neither first, nor above all, representing the world, but it aims at accomplishing actions. Speaking is acting!

Ø The context concept: we mean by this, the concrete situation where words are pronounced or said, the place, the time, the identity of the speakers, etc., everything that you need to know to understand and evaluate what is said. It is evident how much the context is essential when we are deprived of it, for example when remarks are reported to you by a third party, isolated, ambiguous and indeterminable.

Ø The performance concept: what is considered as performance, the accomplishment of an action in context, is that it updates the skills of the speakers, that is to say their knowledge and mastery of the rules, or that it should integrate the linguistic exercise in the concept of communicative competence (ARMENGAUD, 1985).[16]

A persuasive message, with an imperative and threatening tone, has the chance to awaken «the reactance» of the conscience, (therefore a resistance from the receiver), which intensity will be as great as the importance of the eliminated or threatened behaviour is. It has been noted that as soon as the possibility of choice between two options is threatened, by making one of them too difficult and little accessible, the attractiveness to the individual towards the latter is reinforced, providing he has realized it! 

By contrast, a lack of oppression felt by an individual can reduce the feeling of reactance (therefore reducing the resistance), if the person claims to have had a choice without coercion, to engage in a particular conduct. 

Then, if the conscience of the subject may manifest through "the reactance", when the individual is able to resist the persuasive attempts in order to preserve a space for freedom (BREHM, 1966), he faces the often unconscious commitments, the conscience responds only in the conditions of an explicit evaluation of the process initiated.[17]

KIESLER[18] referred to what he called «the escalation of commitment », "a tendency for people to cling to an initial decision even when it is clearly put into question by the facts". Once its decision and action is initiated, the individual finds it extremely difficult to reverse all. 

Therefore, although the facts tend to prove to him that he is wrong, the human being often has a tendency to justify his choice by "good reasons".

He could then once again question his beliefs which have failed in order to increase the coherence of his behaviour and could end up by persuading himself of the correctness of his choice. Kurt LEWIN (1947),[19] referred to a "freezing effect": once a decision is made, one is like frozen - it is as if he were a prisoner of his decisions whether they are good or less good. A person has a tendency to maintain behaviour even if it does not have the expected effects and to persevere in a situation, even if the goal has not been reached. 

Engaging communication (GIRANDOLA, 2003, 2005)[20] is a communication which involves, on one hand, the reception by the target of a message aimed at persuading, and on the other hand, the achievement by the target of an action or of several so-called " preparatory actions". 


By reading what precedes, we could say that any communication is a commitment from one party to another. This could materialize as follows:

Ø A communication commits an organization, as much as a person, through the information it (he) transmits. It takes the responsibility of its credibility and veracity. So, there is a strong moral and social responsibility towards the receiving sources which will consider the contribution of concepts reducing their level of uncertainty. Let's note an important point: propaganda shows no regard for this responsibility. The important thing is to make people believe by playing on susceptibilities to make them act. The same applies to the manipulative communication which acts at the detriment of individual will.

Ø Promotional and advertising communication promises in some way. So there is a commitment on the part of the organization towards its consumer: it undertakes to give him satisfaction and to give him a better quality of life.

Ø Etc.

The problem remains the same in the internal communication of the organization. Through the dissemination of professional, social or institutional information, the organization makes a commitment, and has a moral responsibility, to give its human resources enough data for a job to be done effectively and efficiently.

The organization will thus have to integrate itself  in the chosen geographic environment. This voluntary integration will be made under different strategic thrusts:

Ø A general integration[21] : considering the existing forces and factors, the organization will need to work in conjunction with the existing players, 
Ø An horizontal integration: a strategy that the organization will adopt through the acquisition of certain present actors in order to enjoy a greater power on the market, 
Ø A backward integration: another strategy adopted by the organization to master its raw materials supply, 
Ø A forward integration: strategy adopted by the organization in order to get closer to the external publics, 
Ø A vertical integration: process allowing the organization to bring together all the activities of production and sale of the same product.

The organization will then use all the means that Integral Intelligence will provide, being itself the result of Relational Intelligence. For LANDIER, the organization must evolve and adapt to its social, economic and cultural environment so that it can survive and flourish, because the opportunities of evolution, or even of a revolution, are today numerous.[22]

In addition, there is a moral responsibility attached to the idea of integration in an environment. This responsibility involves the protection of what already exists, but also a structural, cultural, professional and social development and the improvement of living conditions.  

The company must therefore question itself on two important points:

Ø The way in which the organization is going to be able and to know how to adapt to its new environment, that is to say, to a pre-existing reality.
Ø The way in which the environment will accept to adapt to the changes that the organization will bring.

All of these elements will also help the organization to achieve its objectives of production and sales. It will operate in a geographical environment and provide, to a certain extent, a professional, technical, technological and social change while undergoing the actions and desires of the latter.

It will thus change some internal and external structures, while adapting its production and limiting, as much as possible, the negative consequences that could be deriving from its activity. In a word, it will take into consideration the existing factors of this geographical environment, comply with them, adapt to them. It will therefore introduce, integrate, undergo and impose on the environment.

Understanding these points, is also to understand and apply the theory of the three circles: the circle of the organization which gives birth to an outer circle of a professional nature and is included as well in a circle said social or residential, that is to say, the development of a human life: school, places of worship, recreation, etc.

To succeed in its integration, the organization will conduct different researches on the topic of this theory in order to comply with this diagram and to be accepted by the environment, because the integration cannot be real and total that if the acceptance exists. To protect and to develop would be already the elements of the first intelligent strategy that it will apply. 

To integrate, to adapt, and to be part of the landscape "without disturbing anything", from the beginning, requires on the part of the organization a deep reflection around some basic questions:

-     Why this choice of geographic environment?
-     What is to bring to it?
-     What are the factors for and against the establishment?
-     What to do to remedy to the negative sides of this settlement?

To answer in the best way to these questions, it is necessary to involve a set of data, of reasons, analysis, researches preferably for the sake of incorporating in a new environment which may, more or less, be welcoming or hostile. The leitmotif that the firm will adopt is "seek to succeed" and will appeal to the efforts of the Economic Intelligence to achieve these goals.

But for the economic objectives to succeed, it requires a fundamental change in a way of thinking, designing and acting. It is to move from a status of traditional organization to a state of an Intelligent Organization. To appeal, therefore, to a creative force that will impose new concepts. This force will be called Intelligence. It is what will help the organization to overcome the FUD factor, (Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt), as:

Ø Fear of risk,
Ø Uncertainty of results 
Ø Doubts on the feasibility and profitability of the project of integration.[23]/[24]

To succeed is especially to implement, simultaneously or alternatively, several types of intelligence. Thus, Interpersonal Intelligence will combine with the Collective Intelligence, the Emotional Intelligence, the Emotive Intelligence, to the Strategic Intelligence, etc.

But the concept of the Intelligent Organization is vast. It includes several nuances, or perceptions that it would be good to define and understand. The addition of certain qualifiers will give various, distinct and different meanings to the term Intelligence. The intelligence of the organization would therefore, and in a first time, be to define and to determine all forms of intelligences which will allow him to achieve its objectives.[25]

Following this order of priorities, Intelligence becomes a catalyst for internal and external life. Because it encourages the development, because it introduces concepts, approaches and new elements, it appears eminently creative, to its benefit and to that of the environment. 

And that is where the "Entrepreneurship Spirit» lies, the spirit of innovation, sustainable and constant change. The intelligence is creative because it uses the processes of valuing and of innovating in order to cause positive reactions in the environment where it operates. It will therefore "invent" means to achieve objectives and consider the consequences of evolution in economic, social and professional terms. 


ARMENGAUD F., (1985) -  La pragmatique – Communication et langage – Vol. 68 –

AUSTIN J.L., (1970) – Quand dire c'est faire - Éditions du Seuil, Paris,
BREHM, J. W. (1966) - A theory of psychological reactance - Academic Press.
BOUHARA, I.,  «Le management du changement vers l'entreprise intelligente».  (Hubert Landier, directeur de la revue spécialisée "Management et conjoncture sociale", lors d'une conférence organisée par Royal Air Maroc).
BOULOS J.C., - « Les Relations Publiques » - Cours donné à l'Université Libanaise – 1983.
GIRANDOLA F., (2003, 2005) – Psychologie de la persuasion et de l'engagement – Presse Universitaire de
HABIS, G., – « Marketing et Stratégies Promotionnelles » - Cours donné à l'Université Libanaise – 1997.
KERCKHOFS J. P. - Extracts of the Democratic School, No. 9, March 2002.
KIESLER C., (1971) – The psychology of Commitment - New York, Academic Press.
KHOURY V., – « Etude sur le comportement d'achat en période de récession économique » -  1997 – (n.d.)
KOTLER P., DUBOIS (2006) – Marketing Management – Pearson Education – France
LOGOVOY, C., et HUISMAN,  D., (1980), "Traité de relations publiques » - (Paris : PUF)
 MOUGEL P., TRIOUX A., (2011) – La communication engageante – www.portaildel'


[1] LOGOVOY, C. , and HUISMAN, D. , (1980), "Treaty of public relations " - (Paris: PUF)
[2] The three following points are drawn from the book Marketing Management by Kotler and Dubois - 11th edition - Ed Pearson Education - France.- Page 626.
[3] BOULOS J. C. , - "Public Relations" - Course given to the Lebanese University - 1983.
[4] HABIS, G. , - " Marketing and Promotional Strategies " - Course given to the Lebanese University - 1997.
[5] Often obtained by the hype,
[6] Marketing Management by Kotler and Dubois - op. cit. - Page 622
[7] KHOURY V. , - " Study on purchasing behavior in a period of economic recession " - 1997
[8] KOTLER AND DUBOIS, (2004), op. cit. - Page 623
[9] KOTLER AND DUBOIS, (2004), op. cit. - Page 672
[10] KOTLER AND DUBOIS, (2004), op. cit. - Page 674.
[11] Ideological Events: religious or political. 
[12] BOULOS J. C., - Op. Cit.
[13] KIESLER C. , (1971) - The psychology of Commitment - New York, Academic Press.
[14] Opcit.
[15] AUSTIN J.L. , (1970) - When to say it is to do - Editions du Seuil, Paris,

[16] ARMENGAUD F. , (1985) -  The pragmatic - Communication and Language - Vol. 68 -

[17]  BREHM, J. W. (1966) - A theory of psychological reactance - Academic Press.
[18] Opcit.
[20] GIRANDOLA F. , (2003, 2005) - Psychology of persuasion and of commitment - University Press of Franche-Comte .
[21] The integration developed here, has reference to the approach of Pierre G. Bergeron, in his book " The Modern Management : a global and integrated vision" - 3rd Ed. Gaetan Morin. 1997.
[22] BOUHARA, I. , "The management of change toward the company intelligent".   (Hubert Landier, director of the specialized magazine "Management and social conditions", at a conference organised by Royal Air Maroc). 
[23] BOUHARA I. , - op. cit.
[24] KERCKHOFS J. P. - Extracts of the Democratic School, No. 9, March 2002.
[25] See the Glossary of terms qualifiers of  Intelligence, in the author's blog
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